1.4362 Stainless Steel Bar

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V234N is a ferritic-austenitic duplex stainless steel with a lower Molybdenum content, whose duplex structure, containing approximately equal amounts of Ferrite and Austenite, is able to offer a sufficient resistance to pitting and uniform corrosion, a very good stress corrosion cracking resistance, together with high mechanical properties and toughness.

Designations

VALBRUNA
V234N
AISI
F68
W.N.
1.4362
UNS
S32304
EN
X2CRNIN23-4

Specifications

ASTM
A276
EN
10088-3 / 10250-4

Chemical Composition

Min.
Value %
C
-
Mn
-
Si
-
S
-
P
-
Ni
3.5%
Cr
22%
N
0.05%
Mo
0.1%
Cu
0.1%
Max.
Value %
C
0.03%
Mn
2%
Si
1%
S
0.015%
P
0.035%
Ni
5.5%
Cr
24%
N
0.2%
Mo
0.6%
Cu
0.6%

Mechanical Properties

Condition
Solution Annealed
Subtype
A
Rm [N/mm²]
655 - 830
Rm [Ksi]
87 - 120
Rp0.2% [N/mm²]
400 min.
Rp0.2% [Ksi]
58 min.
HBW
260 max.
E4d [%]
25 min.

Physical Properties

Density
SI / Metric Units
7.8 kg/dm³
US / BS Imperial Units
0.282 lb/in³
Specific Thermal Capacity 20° C
SI / Metric Units
500 J/(kg·K)
US / BS Imperial Units
0.119 Btu/lb°F
Thermal conductivity 20° C
SI / Metric Units
15 W/(m·K)
US / BS Imperial Units
104.002 Btu in/ ft² h °F
Thermal expansion 20° - 100° C
SI / Metric Units
13 (10⁻⁶/K)
US / BS Imperial Units
7.222 (10⁻⁶/°F)
Electrical Resistivity 20° C
SI / Metric Units
0.8 Ω·mm²/m
US / BS Imperial Units
31.496 μΩin
Modulus of Elasticity 20° C
SI / Metric Units
200 GPa
US / BS Imperial Units
29007.548 ksi

Heat Treatment

Solution Annealed
Condition
A
Minimum Temperature °C
950
Maximum temperature °C
1050
Cooling
Water / Air

Applications

Pump and valve parts, pressure vessels, desalination plants, tanks, bolts, nuts, fittings, water flanges, rings, stirrers and shafts where corrosion fatigue resistance is required, and reinforcing bars for structural applications such as roads, bridges, harbors, landing zones, and buildings.

 Weldability

V234N can be welded with the same techniques used for austenitic stainless steels, but special care and suitable choices must be used. No preheating is required and the structure of the HAZ should show an acceptable austenite content if the right welding parameters are applied. Autogenous welding could jeopardize the pitting resistance corrosion of the weld metal (fused zone). Therefore, over-alloyed fillers with more Ni or Ni-Mo, should be used in order to obtain comparable properties of base metal or, at least, a higher austenite content. In very aggressive environments, fillers of Nickel alloys or high alloy Austenitic grades should be used. Matching filler duplex alloys could be used if composition of FZ and HAZ is able to supply the expected results. Post welding annealing restores the balance of Ferrite/Austenite and eliminates the welding stresses.

Hot Working

Large shapes and ingots require a suitable preheating. Avoid overheating or reaching the upper limit of forging temperature, to avoid an increase of the ferrite content. Both small pieces, rolled rings or bars could be either air or rapid quenched after forging. However, an annealing with fast cooling after every kind of hot working is mandatory for best mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. Even though V234N has a structure less prone to generate intermetallic phases, when compared to high Mo Duplex grades, a slow or improper cooling rate should be avoided.

Machinability

V234N, as with other duplex stainless steels, is more difficult to machine if compared to the typical austenitic grades. A careful choice of machining parameters should partially reduce the gap. For better performance in machinability, this grade could be substituted by MV274MDE, providing that MV274MDE is able to offer similar or acceptable results in terms of corrosion, toughness and weldability require by specific Norms, or the design.

Cold Working

V225MN is suitable for the same cold heading and cold deforming processes applied to austenitic stainless steels, but it should be considered that its yield strength is higher and, therefore, more difficult to cold strain. Original mechanical properties and resistance corrosion are restored by a new annealing and fast cooling.

Melting Practices

Argon Oxygen Decarburization.